Assessment of Pesticide Use against Tephrtidae Fruit Fly and Other Pest among Small-scale Solanaceous Vegetable Farmers in Bugorhe-Kabare the Democratic Republic of CongoAssessment of Pesticide Use against Tephritidae Fruit Fly and Other Pest among Small-scale Solanaceous Vegetable Farmers in Bugorhe-Kabare the Democratic Republic of Congo

Rubabura K.JA.(Agricultural Entomology laboratory, Entomology Section, Research Centre in Natural Sciences (CRSN-Lwiro), Democratic Republic of Congo)
Ndatabaye L.F.(Agricultural Entomology laboratory, Entomology Section, Research Centre in Natural Sciences (CRSN-Lwiro), Democratic Republic of Congo)
Lina A.A.(Department of Biology, State University of Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo)
Muhigwa B.JB.(Department of Biology, State University of Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo)

Article ID: 517


Ninety-six farmers interviewed in Kabare, east of the DR Congo during 2021. Farmers majority were males (79.17%), ranging 30 to 60 years, used different pesticides in vegetable farms and the main solanaceous crops cultivated is tomato. The use of insecticide and fungicide were high, with many different formulations of the different class types recorded in use, (20%) endocrine disruptors, (40%) cholinesterase inhibitors, (35%) carcinogen and potential carcinogens suspected to be. A lot of out of those pesticides are unregistered for general use. Farmers applied pesticide once a week and they didn’t have specific instructions. The skin effects, headaches and dizziness are dominant. They do not have a good system of pesticide packaging management. For reducing pesticide application, we propose options of agro ecology. We suggest that the Congolese government must create a quarantine, control and surveillance service for phytosanitary products, fruits and vegetables within the DRC country and at these borders. Also, it needs urgent action from the federal and regional governments to formulate policy, design legislation, and enforcing for its implementation concerning the supply, transportation, storage, appropriateness, and application of harmful pesticides.


Pesticide; Market gardeners’ crops; Farmer’s small holders; Endocrine disruptors; Cholinesterase inhibitors

Full Text:



Rubabura, K.J.A., Munyuli, B.M.T., Bisimwa, B.E., et al., 2015. Invasive fruit fly, Ceratitis species (Diptera: Tephritidae), pests in South Kivu region, eastern of Democratic Republic of Congo. International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research. 16(2), 403-408.

Rubabura, K.J.A., Chihire, B.P., Bisimwa, B.E., 2019. Diversity and abundance of fruit flies (family: Tephritidae) in the Albertine rift zone, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and preliminary prospects for biological control. Advances in Plants & Agriculture Research. 9(1), 41-48. DOI:

Grasswitz, T.R., Fimbres, O.E., 2013. Efficacy of a physical method for control of direct pests of apples and peaches. Journal of Applied Entomology. 137, 790-800.

Sharma, R.R., Pal, R.K., Sagar, V.R., et al., 2014. Impact of pre-harvest fruit-bagging with di_erent coloured bags on peel colour and the incidence of insect pests, disease and storage disorders in ‘Royal Delicious’ apple. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology. 89, 613-618.

Leite, G.L.D., Fialho, A., Zanuncio, J.C., et al., 2014. Bagging tomato fruits: A viable and economical method of preventing diseases and insect damage in organic production. Florida Entomologist. 97, 50-60.

Filgueiras, R.M.C., Pastori, P.L., Pereira, F.F., et al., 2017. Agronomical indicators and incidence of insect borers of tomato fruits protected with non-woven fabric bags. Ciência Rural. 47, 1-6. Available online: (accessed on 20 April 2019).

Frank, D.L., 2018. Evaluation of fruit bagging as a pest management option for direct pests of apple. Insects. 9, 178.

Grasswitz, R.T., 2019. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for Small-Scale Farms in Developed Economies: Challenges and Opportunities. Insects. 10, 179.DOI:

Ekesi, S., Billah, M.K., Nderitu, P.W., et al., 2009. Evidence for competitive displacement of Ceratitiscosyra by the invasive fruit fly Bactrocerainvadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) on mango and mechanisms contributing to the displacement. Journal of Economic Entomology. 102, 981-991.

Ekesi, S., Meyer, M.D., Mohamed, S.A., et al., 2016. Taxonomy, ecology, and management of native and exotic fruit fly species in Africa. Annual Review of Entomology. 61, 219-238.

Abang, A.F., Kouame´, C.M., Abang, M., et al., 2014. Assessing vegetable farmer knowledge of diseases and insect pests of vegetable and management practices under tropical conditions. International Journal of Vegetable Science. 20(3), 240-253.

Biasazin, D.T., Wondimu, W.T., Herrera, L.S., et al., 2021. Dispersal and competitive release affect the management of native and invasive tephritid fruit flies in large and smallholder farms in Ethiopia. Scientific Report Springer Nature. 11(2690), 1-14. DOI:

Mengistie, B.T., 2016. Environmental governance of pesticides in Ethiopian vegetable and cut flower production. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen.

Mengistie, B.T., 2016. Policy-practice Nexus: pesticide registration, distribution and use in Ethiopia. Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology. 2, 1-13.

Fikadu, Z., 2020. Pesticides use, practice and its effect on honeybee in Ethiopia: a review. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 40, 473-448. DOI:

Mengistie, T.B., Mol, P.J.A., Oosterveer, P., 2017. Pesticide use practices among smallholder vegetable farmers in Ethiopian Central Rift Valley. Environment, Development and Sustainability. 19, 301-324.DOI:

Anderson, A.J., Ellsworth, C.P., Faria, C.J., et al., 2019. Genetically Engineered Crops: Importance of Diversified Integrated Pest Management for Agricultural Sustainability. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology. 1-14. DOI:

Panuwet, P., Siriwong, W., Prapamontol, T., et al., 2012. Agricultural pesticide management in Thailand: Status and population health risk. Environmental Science and Policy. 17, 72-81.

Ahouangninou, C., Martin, T., Edorh, P., et al., 2012. Characterization of health and environmental risks of pesticide use in market-gardening in the rural city of Tori-Bossito in Benin, West Africa. Journal of Environmental Protection. 3, 241-248.

Vontas, J., Hernández-Crespo, P., Margaritopoulos, T.J., et al., 2011. Insecticide resistance in Tephritid flies Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 100(3), 199-205. DOI:

Damte, T., Tabor, G., 2015. Small-scale vegetable producers’ perception of pests and pesticide uses in East Shewa zone, Ethiopia. International Journal of Pest Management. 61(3), 1-8.

Mondedji, A.D., Nyamador, W.S., Amevoin, S.K., et al., 2015. Analysis of some aspects of the vegetable production system and producer’s perception of the use of botanical extracts in the management of insect pests in mqrket gardening in Southern Togo. International Journal of Biology and Chemistry Sciences. 9(1), 98-107.

Muliele, M.T., Manzenza, M.C., Ekuke, W.L., et al., 2017. Use and management of pesticides in market gardening: case of the Nkolo area in the province of Kongo Central, Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal of Applied Biosciences. 119, 11954-11972.

Mawussi, G., Kolani, L., Devault, D.A., et al., 2015. Use of chemical pesticides in market gardening systems in West Africa and consequences on soils and water resources: the case of Togo, 44th congress of the French pesticide group, May 26-29, 2014, conference proceedings, Schoelcher, France. 46-53.

Mühlenberg, M., Slowik, J., Steinhauer, B., 1995. Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Cooperation Project Germano-Zaïroise, IZCN/GTZ. pp. 52.

Scheaffer, R.L., Mendenhall, W., Ott, L.,1987. Elementary Survey Sampling. Journal of American Statistical Association. 400, 1185-1186.

Deroo, M., Dussaix, A.M., 1980. Practice and analysis of sample surveys. PUF.

Dagnelie, P., 2008. Principles experimentation: planning of experiments and analysis results. Gembloux, Agricultural Presses, and electronic publishing, pp. 397.

Mawussi, G., Kolani, L., Devault, D.A., et al., 2014. Use of chemical pesticides in market gardening systems in West Africa and consequences on soils and water resources: the case of Togo, 44th congress of the French pesticide group. conference proceedings, Schoelcher, France. 46-53.

Mondedji, A.D., Nyamador, W.S., Amevoin, K., et al., 2015. Analysis of some aspects of the vegetable production system and producers’ perception of the use of botanical extracts in the management of insect pests in market gardening in southern Togo. International Journal of Biology and Chemistry Sciences. 9(1), 98-107.

Wade, C.S., 2003. The use of pesticides in peri-urban agriculture and its impact on the environment. Doctoral thesis, Cheick Anta Diop University, Dakar, Senegal.

Report, 2020. Output of crop of South Kivu, the South Kivu Agricultural Inspector.

Dinham, B., 2003. Growing vegetables in developing countries for local urban populations and export markets: problems confronting small-scale producers. Pest Management Science. 59(5), 575-582.

Ngowi, A.V.F., Mbise, T.J., Ijani, A.S.M., et al., 2007. Pesticides use by smallholder farmers in vegetable production in Northern Tanzania. Crop Protection. 26(11), 1617-1624.

Beránková, M., Hojerová, J., Melegová, 2017. Exposure of amateur gardeners to pesticides via nongloved skin per day. Food and Chemical toxicology. 108(A), 224-235.

Sougnabe, S.P., Yandia, A., Acheleke, J., et al., 2010. Peasant phytosanitary practices in the savannahs of Central Africa. Seiny-Boukar L. and Boumard P. Developing African savannahs: innovating to last. Proceedings of the conference, Garoua, Cameroon. 1-13.

Kanda, M., Boundjou, G.D., Wala, K., et al., 2013. Application of pesticides in market gardening in Togo.VertigO. The electronic journal in environmental sciences VertigO. La revue électronique en sciences de l’environnement. 13(1).

ILO, 2005. Prevention: A global strategy. Promoting Safety and Health at Work. The ILO Report for World Day for Safety and Health at Work Geneva.

Tachin, E.S., 2011. Plant protection and management of vegetable crops: chemical pesticides, both useful and dangerous.

Novikova, I.I., Litvinenko, A.I., Boikova, I.V., et al., 2003. Biological activity of new microbiological preparations alirins B and S designed for plant protection against diseases. Biological activity of alirins against diseases of vegetable crops and potato. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya. 37(1), 92-98.

Santo, M.E.G., Marrama, L., Ndiaye, K., et al., 1998. Investigation of deaths in an area of groundnut plantations in Casamance, South of Senegal after exposure to Carbofuran, Thiram and Benomyl. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology. 12, 381-388.

Gupta, R.C.J., 1994. Carbofuran toxicity. Journal of Toxicology & Environmental Health. 43, 383-418.

WHO/UNEP, 1900. Public Health Impact of Pesticides used in Agriculture Geneva.

Legutowska, H., Kucharczyk, H., Surowiec, J., 2002. Control of thrips infestation on leek by intercropping with clover, carrot or bean. Paroussi, G.; Voyiatzis, D.; Paroussis, E., editors. Proceedings of the second Balkan Symposium on Vegetables and Potatoes (579). 3001 Leuven 1, Belgium: International Society Horticultural Science. 571-574.

Hummel, R.L., Walgenbach, J.F., Hoyt, G.D., et al., 2002. Effects of production system on vegetable arthropods and their natural Enemies. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment. 93(1-3), 165-176.

Sibanda, T., Dobson, H.M., Cooper, J.F., et al., 2000. Pest management challenges for smallholder vegetable farmers in Zimbabwe. Crop Protection. 19(8-10), 807-815.

Assogba-Komlan, F., Anihouvi, P., Achigan, E., et al., 2007. Cultural practices and levels of anti-nutritional elements (nitrates and pesticides) of Solanum macrocarpum in southern Benin. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 7(4), 1-21.

Ghorbel, A., Lazreg Aref, H., Darouiche, M.H., et al., 2016. Estimation of the level of knowledge and toxicological analysis among handlers of organophosphorus pesticides exposed to Fenitrothion in Sfax, Tunisia. International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research. 25(1), 199-211.

Lwin, T.Z., Min, A.Z., Robson, M.G., et al., 2017. Awareness of safety measures on pesticide use among farm workers in selected villages of Aunglan Township, Magway Division, Myanmar. Journal of Health Research. 31(5), 403-409.

Smit, Z.K., Indjic, D., Belic, S., et al., 2002. Effect of water quality on physical properties and biological activity of tank mix insecticide-fungicide spray. Paroussi, G., Voyiatzis, D., Paroussis,E., editors. Proceedings of the second Balkan Symposium on Vegetables and Potatoes (579). 3001Leuven 1, Belgium: International Society Horticultural Science. 551-556.

Antonella, F., Bent, I., Manuela, T., et al., 2001. Preventing health risk from the use of pesticides in agriculture. Protecting workers’ health series. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Epstein, L., Bassein, S., 2003. Patterns of pesticide use in California and the implications for strategies for reduction of pesticides. Annual Review of Phytopathology. 41, 351-375.

Abate, T., van Huis, A., Ampofo, J.K.O., 2000. Pest management strategies in traditional agriculture: An African perspective. Annual Review of Entomology. 45, 631-659.

Belzunces, L., Colin, M., 1993. Bees and pesticides. Synergistic effects of phytosanitary treatments in bees at sublethal doses. The Bee and the Honey, special issue.

Borneck, R., Bricout, J.P., 1984. Evaluation of the economic impact of pollinating entomofauna in agriculture. Bulletin Technique Apicole. 11(2), 47,117-124.

Tasei, J.N., 1996. Impact des pesticides sur les Abeilles et les autres pollinisateurs. Courrier de l’environnement de l’INRA n°29, Laboratoire de Zoologie, 86600 Lusignan. 9-18.

Melaku, G., Shifa, B., Azage, T., et al., 2008. Approaches, methods and processes for innovative apiculture development:Experiences from Ada’a-Liben Woreda, Oromia Regional State,Ethiopia. IPMS of Ethiopian Farmers Project Working Paper 8, ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya.

Desalegn, B., 2014. Assessment of pesticides use and its economic impact on the apiculture subsector in selected districts of Amhara region, Ethiopia. Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology. 5, 1-4.

Melisie, M., Tebkew, D.T., Thakur, K.A., 2016. Farmers’ insecticide use practice and its effect on honeybees (Apis mellifera) foraging on onion flower in Adami Tullu district of Ethiopia. Global Journal of Pests, Diseases and Crop Protection. 4, 139-145.

Krystyna, P., Teresa, S., Monika, W., et al., 2017. The exposure of honey bees to pesticide residues in the hive environment with regard to winter colony losses. Journal of Apicultural Science. 61, 105-125.

Guesh, G., Amssalu, B., Hailu, M., et al., 2018. Beekeeping management practices and gap analysis of beekeepers at different agroecological zones of Tigray region, northern Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development. 10, 260-271.

Chauzat, M.P., Faucon, J.P., Martel, A.C., et al., 2006. A survey of pesticide residues in pollen loads collected byhoney bees in France. Journal of Economic Entomology. 99, 253-262.

MOWR, 2007. Awash River basin flood control and watershed management study project, phase −2 summery report, Annex-B, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia.

Gizachew, A., 2011. Pesticide use in Ethiopia. Ministry of Agriculture Addis Ababa.

Mengistu, Z.M., Beyene, J.T., 2014. Beekeeping in Ethiopia, a case of agrochemical uses in west Gojjam zone. Bee World. 91, 8-11.

Onil, S., Louis, S., 2001. Prevention guide for users of pesticides in market gardening. Technical guide. Studies and Research. Institute for Occupational Health and Safety Research (IRSST) of Quebec, Canada. pp. 92.

Kishi, M., Hirschon, N., Djajadisastra, M., et al., 1995. Relationship of Pesticide Spraying to Signs and Symptoms in Indonesian Farmers. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health. 21, 124-133.

Ajayi, O.C., 2000. Pesticide use practices, productivity and farmer’s health: The case of cotton-rice systems in Cote d’Ivoire, West Africa. Hannover, Germany: A publication of the Pesticide Policy Project.Special Issue Publication Series. 3, 172.

Ahouangninou, C.A., 2013. Sustainability of vegetable production in Southern Bénin: a test of the ecosystem approach. Doctoral thesis, University of Abomey-Calavi, Benin.

WHO, 2012. Health and Environment Linkage Initiative, WHO. Toxic hazards. (cited on 2012 April 26).

Jeyanthi, H., Kombairaju, S., 2005. Pesticide use in vegetable crops: frequency, intensity and determinant factors. Agricultural Economics Research Review. 18, 209-221.



  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.