Exploring How Human Activities Disturb the Balance of Biogeochemical Cycles: Evidence from the Carbon, Nitrogen and Hydrologic Cycles

Olalekan Morufu Raimi(Department of Community Medicine, Environmental Health Unit, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria)
Abiola Ilesanmi(Department of Plant and Environmental Biology, College of Pure and Applied Sciences, Kwara State University, Kwara State, Nigeria)
Ogah Alima(School of Health and Life Sciences, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, United Kingdom)
Dodeye E. Omini(Faculty of Environment and Technology, University of the West of England, United Kingdom)

Article ID: 426


All around us today there is a clear evidence proof suggesting an observable influence by human on biogeochemical cycles which are likely to cause serious consequences for humanity. Activities of human affects the biogeochemical cycles, both directly as well as indirectly. If scholars were able to make clear the degree of how specific human actions is affecting the biogeochemical cycles, they (researchers) would be able to come up with ideas on how to better position toward suggesting strategies aimed at mitigating against disturbances that are worst. This paper aims at exploring how human activities affect the balance of biogeochemical cycles in relation to the Carbon, Nitrogen and Hydrologic Cycles. A literature analysis attempts to use a diversity of search engines such as Scopus, Researchgate, PubMed, Google Scholar, Summon, Hinari, CAB Abstract, OARE Abstract, Academia, Dimension, Mendeley, SSRN search strategy toward retrieving research publications, “grey literature” as well as expert reports from working group. This paper review some of the work done on this topic as well as locate the converging results of interest in all the studies as well as proffered solutions toward this menace with the purpose of forestalling future occurrence. Due to the actions of numerous human activities, the characteristics/features of several components of biogeochemical cycles are experiencing changes which are most likely led to long-term changes. It is essential to forecast the magnitude as well as degree of these changes so that the needed ameliorative actions could be originated well in time.


Biogeochemical cycles, Human activities, Worst disturbances, Ameliorative measures

Full Text:



Raimi Morufu Olalekan, Bilewu Olaolu Oyinlola, Adio Zulkarnaini Olalekan, Abdulrahman Halimat (2019) Women Contributions to Sustainable Environments in Nigeria. Journal of Scientific Research in Allied Sciences. 5(4), 35-51. ISSN NO. 2455-5800. DOI No. 10.26838/JUSRES.2019.5.4.104.

Raimi M O, Suleiman R M, Odipe O E, Salami J T, Oshatunberu M, et al (2019). Women Role in Environmental Conservation and Development in Nigeria. Ecology & Conservation Science; 1(2): DOI: 10.19080/ECOA.2019.01.555558. Volume 1 Issue 2 - July 2019. https://juniperpublishers.com/ecoa/pdf/ECOA.MS.ID.555558.pdf

Olalekan RM, Omidiji AO, Williams EA, Christianah MB, Modupe O (2019). The roles of all tiers of government and development partners in environmental conservation of natural resource: a case study in Nigeria. MOJ Ecology & Environmental Sciences 2019;4(3):114‒121. DOI: 10.15406/mojes.2019.04.00142.

Okoyen E, Raimi M O, Omidiji A O, Ebuete A W (2020). Governing the Environmental Impact of Dredging: Consequences for Marine Biodiversity in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Insights Mining Science and technology 2020; 2(3): 555586. DOI: 10.19080/IMST.2020.02.555586. https://juniperpublishers.com/imst/pdf/IMST.MS.ID.555586.pdf

Suleiman Romoke Monsurat, Raimi Morufu Olalekan and Sawyerr Henry Olawale (2019) A Deep Dive into the Review of National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA) Act. International Research Journal of Applied Sciences. pISSN: 2663-5577, eISSN: 2663-5585. DOI No. Irjas.2019.123.123. www.scirange.com. https://scirange.com/abstract/irjas.2019.108.125.

Raimi Morufu Olalekan, Tonye V. Odubo, Omidiji Adedoyin O, Oluwaseun E. Odipe (2018) Environmental Health and Climate Change in Nigeria. World Congress on Global Warming. Valencia, Spain. December 06-07, 2018.

Morufu Olalekan Raimi, Tonye Vivien Odubo & Adedoyin Oluwatoyin Omidiji (2021) Creating the Healthiest Nation: Climate Change and Environmental Health Impacts in Nigeria: A Narrative Review. Scholink Sustainability in Environment. ISSN 2470-637X (Print) ISSN 2470-6388 (Online) Vol. 6, No. 1, 2021 www.scholink.org/ojs/index.php/se. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.22158/se.v6n1p61. http://www.scholink.org/ojs/index.php/se/article/view/3684.

Ajayi Folajimi Ajibola, Raimi Morufu Olalekan, Steve-Awogbami Oluseyi Catherine, Adeniji Anthony Olusola, Adebayo Patrick Adekunle (2020) Policy Responses to Addressing the Issues of Environmental Health Impacts of Charcoal Factory in Nigeria: Necessity Today; Essentiality Tomorrow. Communication, Society and Media. Vol 3, No 3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22158/csm.v3n3p1. http://www.scholink.org/ojs/index.php/csm/article/view/2940.

Ebuete Abinotami Williams, Raimi Morufu Olalekan, Ebuete Ibim Yarwamara & Oshatunberu Modupe (2019) Renewable Energy Sources for the Present and Future: An Alternative Power Supply for Nigeria. Energy and Earth Science. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2019. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.22158/ees.v2n2p18.

Hussain Muhammad Isah, Morufu Olalekan Raimi, Henry Olawale Sawyerr (2021) Patterns of Chemical Pesticide Use and Determinants of Self-Reported Symptoms on Farmers Health: A Case Study in Kano State for Kura Local Government Area of Nigeria. Research on World Agricultural Economy. Vol 2, No. 1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v2i1.342.

Morufu Olalekan Raimi, Tonye Vivien Odubo, Ogah Alima, Henry Akpojubaro Efegbere, Abinotami Williams Ebuete (2021) Articulating the effect of Pesticides Use and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): The Science of Improving Lives through Decision Impacts. Research on World Agricultural Economy. Vol 2, No. 1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v2i1.347.

Morufu Olalekan Raimi (2021). “Self-reported Symptoms on Farmers Health and Commonly Used Pesticides Related to Exposure in Kura, Kano State, Nigeria”. Annals of Community Medicine & Public Health. 1(1): 1002. http://www.remedypublications.com/open-access/self-reported-symptoms-on-farmers-health-and-commonly-used-pesticides-related-6595.pdf. http://www.remedypublications.com/annals-of-community-medicine-public-health-home.php.

Isah, H. M., Sawyerr, H. O., Raimi, M. O., Bashir, B. G., Haladu, S. & Odipe, O. E. (2020). Assessment of Commonly Used Pesticides and Frequency of Self-Reported Symptoms on Farmers Health in Kura, Kano State, Nigeria. Journal of Education and Learning Management (JELM), HolyKnight, vol. 1, 31-54. doi.org/10.46410/jelm.2020.1.1.05. https://holyknight.co.uk/journals/jelm-articles/.

Olalekan RM, Muhammad IH, Okoronkwo UL, Akopjubaro EH (2020). Assessment of safety practices and farmer’s behaviors adopted when handling pesticides in rural Kano state, Nigeria. Arts & Humanities Open Access Journal. 2020;4(5):191‒201. DOI: 10.15406/ahoaj.2020.04.00170.

Isah Hussain Muhammad, Raimi Morufu Olalekan, Sawyerr Henry Olawale, Odipe Oluwaseun Emmanuel, Bashir Bala Getso, Suleiman Haladu (2020) Qualitative Adverse Health Experience Associated with Pesticides Usage among Farmers from Kura, Kano State, Nigeria. Merit Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences (ISSN: 2354-323X) Vol. 8(8) pp. 432-447, August, 2020. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.4008682. https://meritresearchjournals.org/mms/content/2020/August/Isah%20et%20al.htm.

Raimi Morufu Olalekan, Sawyerr Henry Olawale and Isah Hussain Muhammad (2020) Health risk exposure to cypermethrin: A case study of kano state, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture. 7th International Conference on Public Healthcare and Epidemiology. September 14-15, 2020 | Tokyo, Japan.

Asthana D. K and Asthana M (2007) A textbook of Environmental Studies for undergraduate Students (As per UGC Syllabus) S. Chand and Company ltd. Ram Nagar, New Delhi.

Olalekan R. M, Dodeye E. O, Efegbere H. A, Odipe O. E. Deinkuro N. S, Babatunde A and Ochayi E. O (2020) Leaving No One Behind? Drinking-Water Challenge on the Rise in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: A Review. Merit Research Journal of Environmental Science and Toxicology (ISSN: 2350-2266) Vol. 6(1): 031-049 DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3779288

Henry O. Sawyerr, Odipe E. Oluwaseun1, Olawale S. Asabi, Raimi M. Olalekan (2019) Bacteriological Assessment of Selected Hand Dug Wells in Students’ Residential Area: A Case Study of Osun State College of Health Technology, Ilesa, Nigeria. Global Scientific Journal, Volume 7, Issue 1, January 2019, Online: ISSN 2320-9186. www.globalscientificjournal.com.

Bhatti, J. S., van Kooten, G. C., Apps, M. J., Laird, L. D., Campbell, I. D., Campbell, C., Turetsky, M. R., Yu, Z., and Banfield, E (2003)., Carbon balance and climate change in boreal forests, in Towards Sustainable Management of the Boreal Forest, Burton, P.J., Messier, C., Smith, D.W., and Adamowicz, W.L., Eds., NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, 2003, 799–855.

Schimel, D. S (1995). Terrestrial ecosystems and the carbon cycle, Global Change Biol., 1, 77, 1995.

Houghton, R. A (2003)., Revised estimates of the annual net flux of carbon to the atmosphere from changes in land use and land management 1850–2000, Tellus, 55B (2), 378, 2003.

Schlesinger, W. H (1997)., Biogeochemistry: An Analysis of Global Change, 2nd ed., Academic Press, New York, 1997, 588.

Morufu Raimi, Timothy Kayode Samson, Ajayi Bankole Sunday et al (2021). Air of Uncertainty from pollution profiteers: Status of ambient air quality of sawmill industry in Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State, Nigeria, 25 February 2021, PREPRINT (Version 1) available at Research Square https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-270757/v1.

Raimi Morufu Olalekan, Adio Zulkarnaini Olalekan, Odipe Oluwaseun Emmanuel, Timothy Kayode Samson, Ajayi Bankole Sunday & Ogunleye Temitope Jide (2020) Impact of Sawmill Industry on Ambient Air Quality: A Case Study of Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State, Nigeria. Energy and Earth Science Vol. 3, No. 1, 2020. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.22158/ees.v3n1p1.

Raimi Morufu Olalekan, Adeolu Adedotun Timothy, Enabulele Chris E, Awogbami Stephen Olalekan (2018) Assessment of Air Quality Indices and its Health Impacts in Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State, Nigeria. Science Park Journals of Scientific Research and Impact Vol. 4(4), pp. 060-074, September 2018 ISSN 2315-5396, DOI: 10.14412/SRI2018.074.http://www.scienceparkjournals.org/sri/pdf/2018/September/Olalekan_et_al.pdf. http://www.scienceparkjournals.org/sri/Content/2018/September/2018.htm.

Raimi Morufu Olalekan (2019) 21st Century Emerging Issues in Pollution Control. 6th Global Summit and Expo on Pollution Control May 06-07, 2019 Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Premoboere Edna Ateboh and Raimi Morufu Olalekan (2018). Corporate Civil Liability and Compensation Regime for Environmental Pollution in the Niger Delta. International Journal of Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Research Vol. 05, Issue 06, pp. 3870-3893, June, 2018.

Boden T. A, Marland G, Andres R. J (1995) Estimates of Global, Regional, and National Annual CO2 Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring: 1950–1992 (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN), Available at http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/epubs/ndp/ndp030/ndp0301.htm.

Batjes H. Niels (2014) Total carbon and nitrogen in the soils of the world. British Society of Soil Science, European Journal of Soil Science, 65, 4–21.

Houghton R. A, Hackler J. L (2002) in Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change (Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN), Available at http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/landuse/houghton/houghton.html.

Houghton, R. A (2000)., Interannual variability in the global carbon cycle, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 20121, 2000.

Smith, S. V. et al (2001)., Budgets of soil erosion and deposition for sedimentary organic carbon across the conterminous U.S., Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 15, 697, 2001.

Raimi Morufu Olalekan and Sabinus Chibuzor Ezugwu (2017) An Assessment of Trace Elements in Surface and Ground Water Quality in the Ebocha-Obrikom Oil and Gas Producing Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal for Scientific and Engineering Research (Ijser): Volume 8, Issue 6, July Edition. ISSN: 2229-5518.

Morufu Raimi and Clinton Ezekwe (2017), Assessment of Trace Elements in Surface and Ground Water Quality (2017) LAP Lambert Academic Publishing. Mauritius. ISBN: 978-3-659-38813-2. www.omniscriptum.com

Olalekan, R. M., Omidiji, A. O., Nimisngha, D., Odipe, O. E. and Olalekan, A. S. (2018). Health Risk Assessment on Heavy Metals Ingestion through Groundwater Drinking Pathway for Residents in an Oil and Gas Producing Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Open Journal of Yangtze Gas and Oil, 3, 191-206. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojogas.2018.33017

Odipe O. E, Raimi M. O, Suleiman F (2018). Assessment of Heavy Metals in Effluent Water Discharges from Textile Industry and River Water at Close Proximity: A Comparison of Two Textile Industries from Funtua and Zaria, North Western Nigeria. Madridge Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences. 2018; 1(1): 1-6. DOI: 10.18689/mjaes-1000101. https://madridge.org/journal-of-agriculture-and-environmental-sciences/mjaes-1000101.php

Henry Olawale Sawyerr, Morufu Olalekan Raimi, Adedotun Timothy Adeolu & Oluwaseun Emmanuel Odipe (2019) Measures of Harm from Heavy Metal Pollution in Battery Technicians’ Workshop within Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State, Nigeria. Scholink Communication, Society and Media ISSN 2576-5388 (Print) ISSN 2576-5396 (Online) Vol. 2, No. 2, 2019 www.scholink.org/ojs/index.php/csm. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22158/csm.v2n2p73.

Odubo Tonbra Robert and Raimi Morufu Olalekan (2019) Resettlement and Readjustment Patterns of Rural Dwellers During and After Flood Disasters in Bayelsa State Nigeria. British Journal of Environmental Sciences Vol .7, No .3, Pp. 45-52, July 2019. www.eajournals.org.

Raimi Morufu Olalekan, Omidiji Adedoyin O, Adeolu Timothy Adedotun, Odipe Oluwaseun Emmanuel and Babatunde Anu (2019) An Analysis of Bayelsa State Water Challenges on the Rise and Its Possible Solutions. Acta Scientific Agriculture 3.8 (2019): 110-125. DOI: 10.31080/ASAG.2019.03.0572.

Olalekan RM, Adedoyin OO, Ayibatonbira A, et al (2019). “Digging deeper” evidence on water crisis and its solution in Nigeria for Bayelsa state: a study of current scenario. International Journal of Hydrology. 2019;3(4):244‒257. DOI: 10.15406/ijh.2019.03.00187.

Olalekan R. M, Vivien O. T, Adedoyin O. O, et al. (2018). The sources of water supply, sanitation facilities and hygiene practices in oil producing communities in central senatorial district of Bayelsa state, Nigeria. MOJ Public Health. 2018;7(6):337‒345. DOI: 10.15406/mojph.2018.07.00265.

Raimi, M. O, Pigha, Tarilayun K and Ochayi, E. O (2017) Water-Related Problems and Health Conditions in the Oil Producing Communities in Central Senatorial District of Bayelsa State. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR) Vol-3, Issue-6, ISSN: 2454-1362.

Raimi M. O, Abdulraheem A. F, Major Iteimowei, Odipe O. E, Isa H. M, Onyeche Chinwendu (2019). The Sources of Water Supply, Sanitation Facilities and Hygiene Practices in an Island Community: Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Public Health Open Access 2019, 3(1): 000134. ISSN: 2578-5001. DOI: 10.23880/phoa-16000134.

David Keith Todd (2006) Groundwater Hydrology. Second Edition. John Wiley and Sons, inc.

FAO and UNEP. (2021). Global assessment of soil pollution - Summary for policy makers. Rome, FAO. https://doi.org/10.4060/cb4827en.

Raimi Morufu Olalekan, Emeka Chisom Lucky, Ebikapaye Okoyen, Angalabiri Clement, Christopher Ogbointuwe, Atoyebi Babatunde (2021) COVID-19 Decision Impacts: Vaccine Hesitancy, its Barriers and Impact Studies: Taking Bayelsa State as an Example., 27 May 2021, PREPRINT (Version 1) available at Research Square https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-566532/v1.

Morufu Olalekan Raimi, Aziba-anyam Gift Raimi, Teddy Charles Adias (2021). Evidence-based Environmental and Public Health Practices to Respond to the COVID-19 Crisis, 07 May 2021, PREPRINT (Version 1) available at Research Square https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-504983/v1 https://europepmc.org/article/PPRID/PPR335534; EMSID:EMS123969.

Morufu Olalekan Raimi, Ebikapaye Okoyen, Tuebi Moses, Aziba-anyam Gift Raimi, Adedoyin Oluwatoyin Omidiji, Aishat Funmilayo Abdulraheem, Mariam Oluwakemi Raimi, Beatrice Oka Joseph (2021) Do Weak Institutions Prolong Crises? [#ENDSARs] in the Light of the Challenges and opportunities beyond COVID-19 Pandemic and the Next Normal in Nigeria. Communication, Society and Media. ISSN 2576-5388 (Print) ISSN 2576-5396 (Online) Vol. 4, No. 2, DOI: https://doi.org/10.22158/csm.v4n2p1. http://www.scholink.org/ojs/index.php/csm/article/view/3790.

Raimi Morufu Olalekan & Raimi Aziba-anyam Gift (2020). The Toughest Triage in Decision Impacts: Rethinking Scientific Evidence for Environmental and Human Health Action in the Times of Concomitant Global Crises. CPQ Medicine, 11(1), 01-05.

Raimi Morufu Olalekan, Moses Tuebi, Okoyen Ebikapaye, Sawyerr Henry Olawale, Joseph Beatrice Oka, Oyinlola Bilewu Olaolu (2020) “A Beacon for Dark Times: Rethinking Scientific Evidence for Environmental and Public Health Action in the Coronavirus Diseases 2019 Era” Medical and Research Microbiology, Vol. 1, Issues 3.

Samson T.K., Ogunlaran O.M., Raimi O.M. (2020); A Predictive Model for Confirmed Cases of COVID-19 in Nigeria. European Journal of Applied Sciences, Volume 8, No 4, Aug 2020;pp:1-10. DOI: 10.14738/aivp.84.8705. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14738/aivp.84.8705.

Gift RA, Olalekan RM, Owobi OE, Oluwakemi RM, Anu B, Funmilayo AA (2020). Nigerians crying for availability of electricity and water: a key driver to life coping measures for deepening stay at home inclusion to slow covid-19 spread. Open Access Journal of Science. 2020;4(3):69‒80. DOI: 10.15406/oajs.2020.04.00155.

Gift R A, Olalekan RM (2020). Access to electricity and water in Nigeria: a panacea to slow the spread of Covid-19. Open Access J Sci. 2020;4(2):34. DOI: 10.15406/oajs.2020.04.00148. https://medcrave.com/index.php?/articles/det/21409/.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v2i3.426


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2021 The author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
: +65 65881289 : contact@nassg.org