Land Use, Productivity, and Profitability of Traditional Rice–Wheat System Could be Improved by Conservation Agriculture

Mohammad Mobarak Hossain(Department of Agronomy, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, 2202, Bangladesh)
Mahfuza Begum(Department of Agronomy, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, 2202, Bangladesh)
Richard W Bell(Centre for Sustainable Farming Systems, Future Food Institute, Murdoch University, WA 6150, Australia)

Article ID: 516

Abstract


Power tiller-driven plow tillage and crop residue exclusionary Traditional Agriculture practices are expensive, labor demanding, soil damaging, and eco-unfriendly. Over the last several years, pursuits of crop production through sustaining the productive capacity of soils, and environmental quality, have raised concern to adopt Conservation Agriculture worldwide. Single tillage combined with herbicides and crop residue retention principles of Conservation Agriculture are being developed. Between 2016–2017 and 2017–2018, a two-year on-farm experiment was done in Bangladesh. We practiced two crop establishment methods; Traditional Agriculture: Plow tillage followed by three manual weeding without residue preservation of previous crop and Conservation Agriculture: Pre-plant herbicide + single tillage + pre-emergence herbicide + post-emergence herbicide; under rice–wheat and rice–wheat–mungbean systems. Data reveal that the Conservation Agriculture was more cost-effective crop establishment technique than Traditional Agriculture in rice, wheat, and mungbean by increasing the ratio of benefit to costs by 24.3%, 35.7% and 48.8%, respectively, with a savings in tillage operations (66.3%, 58.1%, and 57.6%, respectively), weeding expenditures (59.2%, 24.5%, and 42.2%, respectively), and manpower requirements (25.1%, 27.2%, and 31.3%, respectively). This has resulted in an increase of 32% productivity of rice–wheat–mungbean systems with the yield advantage of 16%, 31% and 37% in rice, wheat and mungbean, respectively. When mungbean was added, the rice–wheat system’s productivity rose by 43%. The rice–wheat–mungbean system under Traditional Agriculture had the highest land utilization efficiency (99.45%), followed by Conservation Agriculture (92.05%), which expanded the scope to include additional crops into rice–wheat–mungbean system. Moreover, the Conservation Agriculture had a 59.7% greater production efficiency than Traditional Agriculture, where the rice–wheat–mungbean system having the highest production efficiency (53.00 kg–1 ha–1 day–1), followed by the rice–wheat system (45.57 kg–1 ha–1 day–1).


Keywords


Plow tillage; Single tillage; Herbicides; Crop residues; Land utilization efficiency; Production efficiency; Rice equivalent yield

Full Text:

PDF

References


Li, F., Zhang, X., Xu, D., et al., 2022. No-Tillage Promotes Wheat Seedling Growth and Grain Yield Compared with Plow–Rotary Tillage in a Rice– Wheat Rotation in the High Rainfall Region in China. Agronomy. 12(4), 865. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12040865

Kumar, D., Hamd-Alla, W., Shivay, Y., et al., 2021. Diversification of rice–wheat cropping system to sustain the productivity and profitability. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 91(4), 597-601.

Kundu, D.K., Mazumdar, S.P., Ghosh, D., et al., 2016. Long-term effects of fertilizer and manure application on soil quality and sustainability of jute– rice–wheat production system in Indo-Gangetic plain. Journal of Applied and Natural Science. 8(4), 1793-1800. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v8i4.1042

Nawaz, A., Farooq, M., Nadeem, F., et al., 2019. Rice–wheat cropping systems in South Asia: issues, options and opportunities. Crop and Pasture Science. 70(5), 395-427. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1071/CP18383

Bell, R.W., Haque, M.E., Jahiruddin, M., et al., 2019. Conservation agriculture for rice-based intensive cropping by smallholders in the eastern gangetic plain. Agriculture (Switzerland). 9(1), 5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9010005

Mishra, J.S., Poonia, S.P., Kumar, R., et al., 2021. An impact of agronomic practices of sustainable rice– wheat crop intensification on food security, economic adaptability, and environmental mitigation across eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains. Field Crops Research. 267, 108164. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2021.108164

Kassam, A., Friedrich, T., Derpsch, R., 2019. Global spread of conservation agriculture. International Journal of Environmental Studies. 76(1), 29-51. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00207233.2018.1494927

Hossain, M.M., Begum, M., Rahman, M., et al., 2021. Resource conservation technology for sustainable productivity of intensive rice-based cropping pattern in Bangladesh. International Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Technology. 7(1), 053- 060. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17352/2455-815X.000088

Farmer, J.A., Bradley, K.W., Young, B.G., et al., 2017. Influence of tillage method on management of Amaranthus species in soybean. Weed Technology. 31(1), 10-20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1614/wt-d-16-00061.1

Adhikary, P., Ghosh, R.K., 2014. Effects of cropping sequence and weed management on density and vertical distribution of weed seeds in alluvial soil. Journal of Crop and Weed. 10(2), 504-507.

Krishna, V., Keil, A., Aravindakshan, S., et al., 2017. Conservation tillage for sustainable wheat intensification: the example of South Asia. In: Achieving Sustainable Cultivation of Wheat. 1st ed. Cambridge CB22 3HJ UK: Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing Limited. pp. 22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.19103/AS.2016.0004.14

Sen, S., Kaur, D., Das, T.K., et al., 2021. Impacts of herbicides on weeds, water productivity, and nutrient-use efficiency in dry direct-seeded rice. Paddy and Water Environment. 19(2), 227-238. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10333-020-00834-3

Busi, R., Powles, S.B., 2017. Inheritance of 2,4-D resistance traits in multiple herbicide- resistant Raphanus raphanistrum populations. Plant Science. 257, 1-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2017.01.003

Li, S., Hu, M., Shi, J., et al., 2022. Improving longterm crop productivity and soil quality through integrated straw-return and tillage strategies. Agronomy Journal. 114, 1500-1511. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/agj2.20831

BRRI, 2021. Modern Rice Cultivation. 23rd ed. Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Joydebpur, Gazipur 1701, Bangladesh. pp. 103.

BARI, 2019. Handbook on Agro-technology. 8th ed. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur, Gazipur 1701, Bangladesh. pp. 535.

Lal, B., Gautam, P., Panda, B.B., et al., 2017. Crop and varietal diversification of rainfed rice-based cropping systems for higher productivity and profitability in eastern India. PLoS One. 12(4), e0175709. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0175709

Islam, M., Nath, L.K., Samajdar, T., 2020. Sustainable diversification of maize (Zea mays L.) -legumes cropping systems for productivity, profitability and resource-use efficiency in West Garo Hills of Meghalaya, India. Legume Research. (43), 427-431. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18805/LR-3970

Perrin, R., Anderson, J., Winkelmann, D., et al., 1988. The partial budget. In: Cassaday K, editor. From agronomic data to farmer recommendations: An economics training manual. Maxico, DF: CIMMYT. pp. 97.

IRRI, 2014. Statistical Tool for Agricultural Research (STAR). Biometrics and Breeding Informatics, PBGB Division, International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Laguna, The Philippines.

Gomez, K.A., Gomez, A.A., 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons. pp. 704.

Hossain, M., Begum, M., Rahman, M., et al., 2019. Effects of the components of conservation agriculture on the profitability of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the Eastern Gangetic Plain of Bangladesh. International Journal of Agricultural and Life Sciences. 7(1), 333-337.

Rodenburg, J., Büchi, L., Haggar, J., 2020. Adoption by adaptation: moving from Conservation Agriculture to conservation practices, International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability. 19(5-6), 437-455. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14735903.2020.1785734

Luying, S., Fengbin, S., Shengqun, L., et al., 2018. Integrated agricultural management practice improves soil quality in Northeast China. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science. 64(14), 1932-1943. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03650340.2018.1468077

Xiao, L., Kuhn, N.J., Zhao, R., et al., 2021. Net effects of conservation agriculture principles on sustainable land use: A synthesis. Global Change Biology. 27, 6321-6330. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15906

Alam, M.K., Bell, R.W., Biswas, W.K., 2019. Increases in soil sequestered carbon under conservation agriculture cropping decrease the estimated greenhouse gas emissions of wetland rice using life cycle assessment. Journal of Cleaner Production. 224, 72- 87. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.03.215

Hossain, A., Mottaleb, K.A., Maitra, S., et al., 2021. Conservation Agriculture Improves Soil Health: Major Research Findings from Bangladesh. In: Jayaraman S, Dalal RC, Patra AK, Chaudhari SK (eds) Conservation Agriculture: A Sustainable Approach for Soil Health and Food Security. Springer, Singapore. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-0827-8_26

Zhang, Y., Li, X., Gregorich, E.G., et al., 2018. No-tillage with continuous maize cropping enhances soil aggregation and organic carbon storage in Northeast China. Geoderma. 330, 204-211. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2018.05.037

Singh, V., Jat, M.L., Ganie, Z.A., et al., 2016. Herbicide options for effective weed management in dry direct-seeded rice under scented rice–wheat rotation of western indo-gangetic plains. Crop Protection. 81, 168-176. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2015.12.021

Zahan, T., Hashem, A., Rahman, M., et al., 2018. Efficacy of herbicides in non-puddled transplanted rice under conservation agriculture systems and their effect on establishment of the succeeding crops. Acta Scientifica Malaysia. 2(1), 17-25. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26480/asm.01.2018.17.25

Brito, I.P., Tropaldi, L., Carbonari, C.A., et al., 2018. Hormetic effects of glyphosate on plants. Pest Management Science. 74(5), 1064-1070. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.4523

Belz, R.G., Duke, S.O., 2017. Herbicide-Mediated Hormesis. In: Pesticide Dose: Effects on the Environment and Target and Non-Target Organisms. ACS Symposium Series, American Chemical Society. 1249, 135-148. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/bk-2017-1249.ch010

Shalini, B., Didal, V.K., Singh, V.K., 2017. Influence of pre- and post- emergence herbicides on weeds and yield of dwarf field pea. International Journal of Pure & Applied Bioscience. 5(2), 675-668. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18782/2320-7051.2615

Mustari, S., Bari, M.N., Islam, M.R., et al., 2016. Evaluation of selected herbicides on weed control efficiency and yield of wheat. Journal of Science Foundation. 12(2), 27-33. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3329/jsf.v12i2.27734

Lu, X., 2020. A meta-analysis of the effects of crop residue return on crop yields and water use efficiency. Plos One. 15(4), e0231740. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0231740

Hossain, M., Begum, M., Rahman, M.M., et al., 2021. Influence of non-puddled transplanting and residues of previous mustard on rice (Oryza sativa L.). International Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Technology. 1(1), 8-14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.51483/IJAGST.1.1.2021.8-14

Hossain, M., Begum, M., Hashem, A., et al., 2020. Weed control in strip planted wheat under conservation agriculture practice is more effective than conventional tillage. Scientific Journal of Crop Science. 9(6), 438-450. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14196/sjcs.v9i6.1593

Akhtar, K., Wang, W., Ren, G., et al., 2018. Changes in soil enzymes, soil properties, and maize crop productivity under wheat straw mulching in Guanzhong, China. Soil and Tillage Research. 182, 94-102. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2018.05.007

Xu, H., Sieverding, H., Kwon, H., et al., 2019. Global meta-analysis of soil organic carbon response to corn stover removal. GCB Bioenergy. 11, 1215-1233. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/gcbb.12631

Huang, R., Tian, D., Liu, J., et al., 2018. Responses of soil carbon pool and soil aggregates associated organic carbon to straw and straw-derived biochar addition in a dryland cropping mesocosm system. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 265, 576- 586. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2018.07.013

Lu, X., 2020. A meta-analysis of the effects of crop residue return on crop yields and water use efficiency. PLoS One. 15(4), e0231740. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0231740

Haque, E., Bell, R.W., 2019. Partially mechanized non-puddled rice establishment: on-farm performance and farmers’ perceptions. Plant Production Science. 22(1), 23-45. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1343943X.2018.1564335

Islam, A.K.M.S., Hossain, M.M., Saleque, M.A., 2015. Effect of unpuddled transplanting on the growth and yield of dry season rice (Oryza sativa L.) in high barind tract. The Agriculturists. 12(2), 91-97. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3329/agric.v12i2.21736

Hossain, M., Begum, M., Bell, R., 2020. On-farm evaluation of conservation agriculture practice on weed control and yield of wheat in northern Bangladesh. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences. 7(2), 84-99. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.68.2020.72.84.99

Islam, A.K.M.M., Popy, F.S., Hasan, A.K., et al., 2017. Efficacy and economics of herbicidal weed management in monsoon rice of Bangladesh: Weed Management in Monsoon Rice of Bangladesh. Journal of Scientific Agriculture. 1, 275-293. DOI: https://doi.org/10.25081/jsa.2017.v1.834

Islam, A.M., Hia, M.A.U.H., Sarkar, S.K., et al., 2018. Herbicide based weed management in aromatic rice of Bangladesh. Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University. 16(1), 31-40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3329/jbau.v16i1.36478

Muoni, T., Rusinamhodzi, L., Rugare, J.T., et al., 2014. Effect of herbicide application on weed flora under conservation agriculture in Zimbabwe. Crop Protection. 66, 1-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2014.08.008

Rugare, J.T., Pieterse, P.J., Mabasa, S., 2019. Effect of short-term maize–cover crop rotations on weed emergence, biomass and species composition under conservation agriculture. South African Journal of Plant and Soil. 36(5), 329-337. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02571862.2019.1594419

Nhamo, N., Lungu, O.N., 2017. Opportunities for smallholder farmers to benefit from conservation agricultural practices. In: Smart technologies for sustainable smallholder agriculture: upscaling in developing countries. Elsevier Inc. pp. 145-163. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-810521- 4.00007-4

Hossain, M.M., Begum, M., Hashem, A., et al., 2021. Mulching and weed management effects on the performance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) transplanted in non-puddled soil. Journal of Wastes and Biomass Management. 3(1), 13-21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26480/jwbm.01.2021.13.21

Salahin, N., Jahiruddin, M., Islam, M.R., et al., 2021. Establishment of crops under minimal soil disturbance and crop residue retention in rice-based cropping system: yield advantage, soil health improvement, and economic benefit. Land. 10, 581. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060581

Naab, J.B., Mahama, G.Y., Yahaya, I., et al., 2017. Conservation agriculture improves soil quality, crop yield, and incomes of smallholder farmers in north western Ghana. Frontiers in Plant Science. 8(996), 1-15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.00996

Hossain, M.M., Begum, M., Hashem, A., et al., 2020. Interactive effects of strip planting, herbicides and wheat straw mulch on weed control and yield of mungbean in northern Bangladesh. International Journal of Scientific Research in Multidisciplinary Studies. 6(12), 1-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4889117

Hossain, M., Sarkar, M., Jahiruddin, M., et al., 2016. Productivity and partial budget analysis in wheat– rice sequences as influenced by integrated plant nutrition system and legume crops inclusion. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research. 41(1), 17-39. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3329/bjar.v41i1.27665

Bhatt, R., Meena, R.S., Hossain, A., 2022. Input use efficiency in rice–wheat cropping systems to manage the footprints for food and environmental security. In: Bhatt R, Meena RS, Hossain A, editors. Input Use efficiency for food and environmental security. Springer, Singapore. pp. 1-31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-5199-1_1




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v3i2.516

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright © 2022 The author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.